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The Arabic combines the original ayin from Egyptian along with the -n ending from Greek. In English, the term was at first spelled "Pharao", but the translators of the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew.

Sceptres and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt. Another scepter associated with the king is the was -sceptre.

The earliest known depictions of the was -scepter date to the First Dynasty. The was -scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and deities.

The flail later was closely related to the heqa -scepter the crook and flail , but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle that is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer Macehead.

The earliest evidence known of the Uraeus —a rearing cobra—is from the reign of Den from the first dynasty.

The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies. The red crown of Lower Egypt, the Deshret crown, dates back to pre-dynastic times and symbolised chief ruler.

A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada , and later, Narmer is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer Macehead and the Narmer Palette.

This is the combination of the Deshret and Hedjet crowns into a double crown, called the Pschent crown. It is first documented in the middle of the First Dynasty of Egypt.

The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet , and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den.

The khat headdress consists of a kind of "kerchief" whose end is tied similarly to a ponytail. The earliest depictions of the khat headdress comes from the reign of Den , but is not found again until the reign of Djoser.

The Nemes headdress dates from the time of Djoser. It is the most common type of crown that has been depicted throughout Pharaonic Egypt. Any other type of crown, apart from the Khat headdress, has been commonly depicted on top of the Nemes.

The statue from his Serdab in Saqqara shows the king wearing the nemes headdress. Osiris is shown to wear the Atef crown, which is an elaborate Hedjet with feathers and disks.

Depictions of pharaohs wearing the Atef crown originate from the Old Kingdom. The Hemhem crown is usually depicted on top of Nemes , Pschent , or Deshret crowns.

It is an ornate triple Atef with corkscrew sheep horns and usually two uraei. The usage depiction of this crown begins during the Early Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.

Also called the blue crown, the Khepresh crown has been depicted in art since the New Kingdom. It is often depicted being worn in battle, but it was also frequently worn during ceremonies.

It used to be called a war crown by many, but modern historians refrain from defining it thus. Egyptologist Bob Brier has noted that despite their widespread depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown has ever been discovered.

Tutankhamun 's tomb, discovered largely intact, did contain such regalia as his crook and flail , but no crown was found among the funerary equipment.

Diadems have been discovered. Brier's speculation is that crowns were religious or state items, so a dead pharaoh likely could not retain a crown as a personal possession.

The crowns may have been passed along to the successor. During the Early Dynastic Period kings had three titles.

The Horus name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesu Bity name was added during the First Dynasty.

The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche. The Horus name was adopted by the king, when taking the throne.

The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a serekh. The earliest known example of a serekh dates to the reign of king Ka , before the First Dynasty.

Aha refers to "Horus the fighter", Djer refers to "Horus the strong", etc. They believed only pharaoh could sacrifice to the gods but this belief lessened over time.

Pharaoh was the commander-in-chief of the army and the highest judge in the land. The people saw the pharaoh as essential for keeping their lives in balance and keeping harmony in Egypt.

Mummification and burial held an important place in Egyptian life. The earliest pharaonic tombs are the mastaba tombs made of mud-brick.

Scholars found these tombs in some of the oldest cemeteries near the ancient capitals see capital list below.

Pyramids were elaborations of the mastaba design made of stone. The first was the Step Pyramid of Djoser which Imhotep designed. Architects planned the pyramids and included a mortuary temple and other royal tombs in the complex.

The Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the greatest example of this type of tomb. Later pharaohs saw that grave-robbers broke into the earlier tombs so they made secret rock-cut tombs.

The area where they built these tombs is now called the Valley of the Kings. Some tombs contained several chambers and more than one ruler.

Pharaohs received elaborate burials containing a wide variety of goods. At first, priests buried pharaohs with items like clothes, furniture, games and jewelry.

During the Nineteenth Dynasty, priests began burying them with items made for the afterlife. Most sarcophagi are made of stone and displayed above ground.

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He was assassinated by his own commander of the royal bodyguard forces. Xerxes is not portrayed positively in the history books as most of the historical texts were written by the Greeks who saw him as a symbol of tyranny.

Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, was an ancient pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. His reign lasted from BC to BC and was not much enjoyed by his people due to the unpopular reformations that took place.

The Egyptians had been used to worshiping a large number of deities, but Akhenaten tried to change this religious tradition to monotheism, or the worship of only one god.

This god was Aten, a kind of solar deity related to the god Ra. He was eliminated from the list of kings and almost no trace of him was found until the discovery of his remains at Akhetaten.

The founder of the Old Kingdom, Djoser, was a pharaoh of the ninth dynasty. He reigned between BC and BC and is best known for his contribution to the construction of the famous limestone Step Pyramid at Saqqara.

The monument is an example of great technological innovation. The pyramid was made to protect the tomb of Pharaoh Djoser and it was created by stacking up huge limestone blocks in the mastaba fashion.

The stones have inscriptions engraved on them and the building is a great example of a smart form of architecture that did not lose its stability despite its height.

The second pharaoh of the fourth dynasty, Khufu, was also known as Khnum Khufu. It is the oldest and largest of all the pyramids present at the Giza complex.

Its remarkable architecture speaks for the impeccable construction techniques that were being used in ancient Egypt.

The pyramid is made up of limestone and mud bricks and was built as a mortuary structure for the pharaoh Khufu. It has three chambers and the Grand Gallery.

It is believed that the chambers were filled with precious jewels and artefacts that have long since been stolen. Her reign lasted from 51 BC to 30 BC during which she proved herself to be an eminent leader.

The kingdom of Egypt prospered under her reign as various reforms were introduced to improve the Egyptian economy. Her foreign relations, both personal and political, proved to be of great value to the kingdom and led to much prosperous foreign trading.

Ruling Egypt was never an easy task for her as her ascension to the throne was challenged by her own brother. She was a smart and competent emperor but at the age of 39, she committed suicide, though by what means is still unproven.

This list includes some of the greatest and most renowned names of ancient Egypt. Some of these may not have made outstanding contributions, but their prominence in history and their popularity makes them superior to many other pharaohs, of whom there are far too many to list.

Britannica Quiz. Walk Like an Egyptian. Which Egyptian pharaoh believed in the idea of a single god? From the pyramids to famous mummies, decode your mental hieroglyphics by taking this Egyptian history quiz.

Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

In cosmogonical terms, Egyptian society consisted of a descending hierarchy of the gods, the king, the blessed dead, and humanity by which was understood chiefly the Egyptians.

Of these groups, only the king was single, and hence he…. In Hellenistic times, Osiris was commonly known by the name Serapis.

These gods became…. Both are among the most characteristic features of Egyptian civilization. Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.

Son of Narmer. Son of Hor-Aha. His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris. Brother of Djer.

Son of Djet. First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity -name. Known for his ominous nebwy -title.

Son of Anedjib or brother of him. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone.

Son of Semerkhet. Hotepsekhemwy [30]. Nebra [31]. First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg.

Nynetjer [32]. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs. Weneg-Nebty [33]. Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.

Senedj [34]. Greek form: Sethenes. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.

Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines.

Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt. Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen. Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.

Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting drought. Known only from Ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in Ramesside times.

Khasekhem wy [39] [40]. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.

Djoser [41] [42]. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt , created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep. Sekhemkhet [44]. In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid , the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.

May have reigned 6 years if identified with the penultimate king of the Dynasty on the Turin canon. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid , could be identical with Huni.

Huni [46]. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt.

Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru , not Huni.

Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferu's work, but that of king Huni.

Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler. Greek form: Cheops and Suphis.

Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler.

He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.

Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash.

However, this pyramid is no longer extant; it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.

His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra.

Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu. Greek form: Bikheris. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.

Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un. According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.

Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir. Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir , where he built his pyramid.

Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure. Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis.

Last pharaoh to build a sun temple. Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.

The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts. Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti.

Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years. Merenre Nemtyemsaf II [49].

Neitiqerty Siptah. Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho. Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.

Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara. Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts.

Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos. Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay.

Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min.

Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. Neferkare VII. Intef the Elder Iry-pat. Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.

Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II [58]. Gained all Egypt c. Sankhkare Mentuhotep III [59]. Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom.

Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV [60]. Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I.

Segerseni [61]. Qakare Ini [61]. Iyibkhentre [61]. Sehetepibre Amenemhat I [62] [63]. Possibly overthrew Mentuhotep IV. Assassinated by his own guards.

Kheperkare Senusret I [64] Sesostris I. Nubkaure Amenemhat II [65]. Nimaatre Amenemhat III [68]. Maakherure Amenemhat IV [69].

Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos. Sobekkare Sobekneferu [70]. Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I. Founded the 13th Dynasty.

His reign is well attested. Attested on a Nile record from Semna. Ruled for 3 to 4 years [71]. Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur. Very short reign, possibly c.

Attested on the Turin Canon. Attested on the Turin Canon [74]. Attested on the Turin Canon [76]. Reigned c. Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue.

Reigned 1 year and 6 months, — BC [71]. Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw. Estimated reign 3 years, — BC [71]. Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer.

Estimated reign 2 years, — BC [71]. Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay. Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara.

Reigned less than 10 years, starting BC [71] or BC. Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI. Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon [71].

Some time between BC and BC [71]. Around BC [71]. Unknown— BC [71]. Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty. After BC. Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt [78].

Qareh Khawoserre [78]. Sheshi [79]. Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.

Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi [78]. Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh [71]. Nebsenre [78]. Sekheperenre [78]. Anati Djedkare [78].

Bebnum [78]. Nuya [71]. Wazad [71]. Sheneh [71]. Shenshek [71]. Khamure [71]. Yakareb [71]. Yaqub-Har [79]. May belong to the 14th dynasty , the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos.

Possibly the Pharaoh that was mentioned in Genesis May belong to the late 16th Dynasty [83]. May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.

Tomb discovered in Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[ Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered. Seankhenre Mentuhotepi.

May be a king of the 17th Dynasty [85]. Nebiryraw II. May be a king of the 13th Dynasty [85]. His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramesses IX.

Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V. Brother and successor to Kamose , conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos. Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I.

His mother is known to be Senseneb. Expanded Egypt's territorial extent during his reign. Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret.

The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign.

Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's power. Son of Thutmose II.

Life After Death in Ancient Egypt. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period. The founder of the Old Slots Social Casino Online, Djoser, was a pharaoh of Poker Wiesbaden ninth dynasty. Encyclopedic Entry Vocabulary. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Artaxerxes IV Arses. The name would follow the glyphs for Lucky Lady Charm Online Echtgeld "Sedge and the Bee". Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV [60].

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